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Heatwaves (HW) and Sunstroke (SS) are well connected. Yet, no understanding exists of the mechanics of their connection. Furthermore, there is also a need to understand the mechanics of heat waves, soil moisture loss and the mechanics of sunstroke separately. It is said that 60% of the Indian sub-continent experiences varied periods of heat wave cum sunstroke conditions between March to July, annually. This is also the fieldwork period for all national and macro-level projects. Therefore, the public (especially field engineers) should know more about the underline mechanics.

What is a Heatwave?

Heatwave (HW) is a meteorological phenomenon. The India Meteorology Department (IMD) defines HW on the basis of recordings done at two contiguous met stations. For stations that have a normal summer temperature range of 400-450 Celsius wherein an excess by an order of 500-600 Celcius classed as ‘Normal Heat Wave’, while an excess by an order of >700 Celsius is classed as ‘Severe Heat Wave’. For stations that have a normal summer temperature range of >450 Celsius, an excess by an order of 40 to 60 degree Celsius and >600 Celsius are classed as ‘Normal Heat Wave’ and ‘Severe Heat Wave’ respectively [1]. Thus, the Indian official scheme relates HW solely to temperature anomaly in relation to place and time. In fact, not so simple. HW is a borderless meteorological phenomenon. It affects large geospatial domains and is a severe ecological stress creator. High population density coupled with industrialized anthropogenic lifestyle in hot regions (additionally) fold multiplies the anthropogenic factors of the stress on to the ecology, raising such stress to ‘acute levels’. Sunstroke (SS) is its signature on biological beings only. HW affects the soil moisture flora, fauna and the anthropomorphs (humans). Primarily HW is catalysed by adiabetic pulli.e., inversion (despite heavy updraft of moisture). Such a condition connotes loss of moisture at the surface. In other words, SS is the earliest visual signature of the (i) ‘acute levels’ of impending ecological stress (ii) biological stress. Unmanaged, it can keep auto-intensifying, geographic expansion, positing as an obstinate met phenomena i.e. generation of ‘low work done potential ecology’, alias (iii) aridification. It is the signature of the point of ‘no-return’ [2]. This creates a human security problem.

Heat Wave Mechanism

What is the effect of a heatwave? The effect of heat wave results first in the drying of water bodies progressing from shallow to deep sources; fall in water table; loss of soil moisture; caking and pulverization of topsoil; pulverization; dust making; getting airborne; onsets wind erosion cycle (apart massive flow out even with moderate rains). Intensification of such cycle with every passing year. As soil moisture gets low, flora and fauna (animals & humans i.e. biological life) also start losing physiological fluid resulting in wilting and drying of flora and fatality of the fauna (blood, lymph, serum in anthropomorphs & theriopomorphs. Water & sap in fauna constitute physiological fluids. Most vital.). Historically floral cover acts as the antidote. However, flora cannot survive sans soil moisture. Moisture i.e., Relative Humidity (RH) experiences osmosis efficiently. Soil Moisture (SM) cannot remain sans a supporting atmospheric RH. Thus HW is a cascade. The end product is draught. Sunstroke (SS) is a constituent part of HW. In the Indian sub-continent, HW is triggered when the seas around have warm SST conditions with the Sun being aligned to the N of 100 Lat. (as in 2016). Such a combination results in intense and as well in long period episodes of HW and SS conditions encompassing large swaths of the Indian peninsula. Hence, HW and SS conditions are preceded by soil moisture loss. Thus a multi-disciplinary approach is warranted. Fig.1 schematic explains HW phenomena over domain Odisha.


The Sun is aligned (noon time India) at a location with one side facing the sea and three landlocked sides. The incident sun rays inject astronomical energy in the form of heat into the topsoil at a location of soil moisture loss (SM). The region to its east is marked 1 (is of relatively higher soil moisture and atmospheric RH). The region to the west of location SMis marked as 2(is of relatively low soil moisture and atmospheric RH). Depending upon, geomorphology, physiography and floral surface cover such separation occurs. This is our field observation-based theory. The theoretical rebound of the astronomical heat is projected at point X. Line SM-X is west to east moving phenomenon, i.e. region-2 keeps on expanding while region-1 gets on constricting. Heating generates ‘low’ alters the architecture and the spacing of the barometers, additionally with reducing variations between day and night. From the east direction (sea side) two vectors marked W1 & W2 having variable RH and speed are flowing in towards SM. These are easterlies/sea breezes colloquially better known as Chaiti (breeze that blows in the month of Chaitra). Inland RH is logically to be low. The kinetic component of W1 & W2 vector the RH from the sea towards SM. However, SM cannot be imputed into the soil as because the central and western Odisha regions (and further inland) have lower RH. Thus, ever-increasing sea-sourced moisture is designated for the central Indian peninsula and not for western Odisha per say. This includes SM (from every point) that is expressed via evapotranspiration and is eventually vectored inland (region marked 2) at angles θ1 & θ2. No. 3 is the meteorological boundary layer. No. 4 (semi-parabolic arcs) shows the gradual lowering of the theoretical T-Φ line (therm-fi) and its migration towards the west and southwest. Wherever SS. By juxtaposing Fig.1 and Fig.3, we come to know, that the T-Φ line is dependent on SM loss and its ingression towards the eastern coast. Geographically, the horizontal line represents an average of the Tel-Mahanadi-Brahmani drainage systems. The western coast has a coastal mountain range. It is a natural barrier. The eastern coast is aligned to the latitudes and logically to the natural angulation of the geostrophic winds (Fig is a 10 map). Therefore, the eastern shoreboard is the supplier of moisture, while the west loses it to the desert regions that are in its beyond. Therefore, SM can be the most effective antidote. Non else. Furthermore, the chaiti pabana (wind, 20-30Knots) has a connection with the moon’s rise, set and zenith pass timings and alignment. In 2016 the moon had an extreme northerly swing resulting in very strong chaiti [3]. We have used Odisha because we have conducted our experiments and validated them in such regions (over 2 decades). In Fig.2. we present a Satellite image [4] from geostationary position dt. 21-12-2008 at 06UTC (Capricornian solstice- India noon time). The incident Sun rays refract towards the central line as it enters the dense atmosphere which has a concavo-convex architecture as is done while ‘focusing’. The constricted focused region of the sun is well reflected (only) on the ocean water. Meteorologically this is the effective sun’s size-based coverage on the terrestrial surface (post lens effect). We have marked the place in the Indian Ocean with a circle. We have then drawn an identical circle with central India as the centre (for on 21st June of every year the focus region gets to be aligned also with India). We note that the whole of the Indian nation comes virtually within the swath of the focal region. Focus means the intensive injection of solar energy. This cannot happen sans the ‘lens effect’ of the atmosphere. The lens effect’ is a blessing for biological evolution, mitosis and plurality (Veda). Most of the regions that come under the glare of the ‘lens effect’, are home to lush green equatorial or salubrious tropical flora, fauna and ancient civilizations. Therefore, temperature is not the villain. It is a lack of RH which is the real villain. The IMD has eminently used a simple classification based on fieldwork, hand-collected, long-period average data(temp. & RH). It has not considered the laws of physics neither the principles of fluid mechanics nor physiology, geography, geomorphology or soil moisture or the SST anomaly. It has neither adopted our type of methodology to explain even to the select quarters of the administration the ‘why & how’ of heat waves. We have herein taken these parameters because an understanding is paramount and it is a national requirement. Our efforts confirm that it is the astronomical energy that is the cause of heat, while low RH is the cause of its wave-like propagation, and lack of SM is the cause of Sunstroke i.e. heat wave and sunstroke have to be related to SM, RH, SST, Physiography, Flora cover, the direction of the ground breeze and the coefficient of the evapotranspiration on a macro-to-regional geospatial scale. And, IMD only talks about HW and its model is plaintive. It does not talk about ecological i.e. phyto, agro, veterinary and human stress or security (sun stroke), management, etc. The fact is HW may or may not generate SS conditions (socio-economic shocks). Planning cannot afford (to factor in) such large-scale natural loopholes. Millions cannot any further be left in the lurch. The nation has to go beyond the term ‘heat wave’ for micro-macro-regional planning for obtaining assured better results thereof from investments. Our study posits in such directions, also.


Soil Moisture Loss

What is the mechanism of SM loss? In brief, the principles of thermodynamics state that heat is energy. It comprises of particles which in compressible media propagate in a waveform due to (thermal) gradient. In the atmosphere, it is vectored by wind and is guided by boundaries (solid/liquid), with which it interacts via convection and forms couples by the process of absorption and radiation via a delayed action mechanism (especially) when incident). Energy absorption and retention are better in the presence of liquids (dissolved or suspended). Clay is such a candidate. Therm absorption in soil media is always in the form of small wavelets and the return radiation is in the form of outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR). It is expressed in units of Watts/m2, an is read as (cloud) top temperature. It has a property to warm the moisture. Energised moisture becomes buoyant and shears away. Thus, post noon the room interiors have higher trapped moisture as expressed by anthropogenic activity. Higher RH down-regulates the adiabatic process and destabilizes its architectural field. Low RH enlarges and stabilizes. Hence, post noon humans and animals experience heightened levels of perspiration. It is also felt outdoors in breezeless conditions (atmospheric stall). Therefore fatigue is experienced at dusk. At this juncture, exercise mechanically assists evapotranspiration and the resultant heightened oxygenation of the tissues dispels fatigue. Hence open field games are played in the afternoons, while in-auditorium afternoon play is tiring. Fig. 3 is that of the mean OLR for India post noon for Capricornia solstice 2017 [5]. We can see that as early as Mar., the whole region of Gujarat, Maharashtra, parts of MP & Karnataka are yielding high OLR (300w/m2), with one branch poised towards western Odisha. This means the atmosphere of this region is relatively breezeless and the lithosphere of these regions is expressing moisture into the atmosphere and that it has a teleconnection with the Somalian desert (bridging the Arabian Sea at 1.5 Km above the MSL). We are of the opinion that this region is the mother bed of soil desiccation and HW in India. It eventually expands till July through April-June). OLR is always a vortical phenomena and is followed by vectoring of the moisture specially during the nocturnal hours. It results in irretrievable loss of moisture from a given place. OLR contour changes least during the waxing phase of the moon because lunar gravity imparts heightened buoyancy to moisture and makes it ‘standstill’. A stalled moisture field does not allow column pressure to alter from pocket to pocket. This phenomenon down-regulates surface breeze. The day next HW is more intense. HW is observed to be associated with diurnal moon pass (4th quarter to 72 hours post new moon phase). Moisture is the voluminous component of the atmosphere. Alteration in moisture content inflicts change in volume, convection, condensation, collation, trapping and release of radiative therm, etc., processes (in the\of the atmosphere). Therefore, SM acts as a (delayed action) regulator. It thwarts abrupt extreme swivels in RH and temperature. It up-regulates precipitation. Due to such mechanics, therm and volume also form a naturally preferred pair and in turn also inflict variability in barometric pressure (hPa). It is associated with convection and non-uniformity in the temperature & vortical conditions within the atmospheric column height. Such an unbalanced state of energy is called enthalpy. It is a state of dynamic motion which imparts higher ‘work done’ abilities. Dynamic motion makes more moisture available (Fermions that behave like Bosons). This is a loop. Therefore Enthalpy is associated with absence of HW and or SS (even in loo periods in core loo domains). Opposite of Enthalpy is baroclinic conditions, when the uniformity in the column height of the atmospheric temperature rises to higher altitudes i.e. it becomes more uniform (always being associated with low RH) with a reduction of work done ability. It is a sort of ‘inversion’. Low RH occurs due to non-participating soil (low SM). Therefore, only baroclinic conditions are conducive for HW. Which in turn induces SS and it cannot germinate if SM is normal.

Urban Heat Island

In India, urban heat island is a phenomenon of the post year1970. It means that the temperature profiles of the urban regions stand out in contrast to the neighbouring rural regions i.e. the urban centre will be recording high diurnal temperature, while there will be no change (say)100 km away from its periphery. Hence it is an island. Bhubaneswar is Smart City Candidate No.1. The twin city of Bhubaneswar-Cuttack is such a case. Large-scale use of reinforced concrete cement (RCC) has been used to quickly build with the comparative economy, large urban conglomerates and industry centres. The structures include (i) buildings (ii) roads. The surface area exposed to the incident solar radiation is many times more. The thermal conduction and ‘heat sink’ property of RCC is much more than soil. There is a commensurate reduction of soil surface area with heightened anthropogenic use of water table resources. Used water becomes surface runoff (mostly uncovered drains) and does not seep underground. All these were never there prior to urbanization/industrialisation. Urban centres built primarily of RCC act as alike ‘heat radiators’, only during tropical summer conditions. Due to the fold increase of surface area and therm entrapment, it creates a local pocket of heightened heat between the local hours of 9 AM to 1 PM. During these 4 hours, a strong up-draft mechanism is triggered. If there be at the same time (a) a strong surface breeze extending over a synoptic domain (b) or if it is a ‘low’ RH period then up-drafted moisture from the local/regional scale will be vectored away in a no immediate return mechanism (lateral transportation and a diabetic loss), as that happens in region(s) marked as 4 in Fig.1., during Chaitra (Mar-Apr.) in Odisha. Our Fig.4. schematically explains urban heat island phenomena in and around the Bhubaneswar-Cuttack twin city region.


We can understand that RH from the twin city region will more efficiently be expressed towards central India via the mechanism explained in our Fig.1. Long-period repetitive occurrence of such a mechanism inflicts lowering of water table even in annually long period flood-prone regions like the Brahmani-Mahanadi delta. Due to water training hydraulic devices (quick flood-less flow back to the sea), such mechanics get robotised. Atmospheric and soil-trapped fluid flow is thence towards the Urban Heat Island. In the immediate vicinity, it causes severe and occasionally acute water shortages at the surface level. Meanwhile, arable lands tend to get fallow. Crops wilt, productivity drops, tolerance to fertilizers and insecticides diminishes. Moisture stress heightens and the window widens. The moisture in the hay and livestock feed reduces, so do the hay staple size and thickness. Incidences of large-scale spreading village fires are reported. Yield from domesticated milching cattle also takes a downturn. The incidence of skin diseases takes an up-turn. Over decadal periods, topsoil becomes powdery and is efficiently transported away over long distances even by small episodes of rain or made airborne by coastal wind (land breeze in particular) and anthro activity or cattle graze (godhuli). Thus, Bhubaneswar is getting more dusty by the year. During the no-rain period, the dust gets airborne and traps radiative heat, creating greenhouse conditions around urban centres. All these are because of (modern plan period) anthropogenic induced localised heightened seasonal evapotranspiration. Such a phenomenon occurring in central and western Orissa, will draw out much (additional) moisture from the neighbouring deciduous (even reserve) forests and subsequently also from the coastal regions and will inflict much damage to the flora (same along the west coast of India) i.e. such a heat island phenomena is already occurring along the Rayagada-Titlagada-Balangir-Bargada-Sambalpur-Jharsuguda-Bilaspur-Raipur-Kantabanji axis (circular & enlarging); includes urban centres. This is triggering an irreversible aridification mechanism with disastrous consequences on coastal fragile ecology having wider domain ramifications [6]. On the Indian sub-continent aridification has been progressing from across Paki into Indo; into Paki from Arabia & into Arab from Sahara ~ The maintainer of humidity (else there would be too much humidity because moisture induces/assist dynamic motion. This makes more moisture available i.e., Fermions that behave like Bosons (Our Personal communication to President IMS, as part of project VLRF-2017). Heat islands up-regulate SM loss. Its genetic bed is the Dharwad-Vidharbh region. It is synoptic in scale. Man-made water bodies are thin films of liquid. They act as anti-dote [7]. Therefore, the creation of water bodies (which has to be part of the techno-socio-economic plan of India) in and around every urban centre has a surface area calculated as per m3 of the aggregate of the structures in a given urban centre. Roughly (for planning purposes) a range of 1:16-20m2 is advocated as an effective countermeasure. The water bodies (thin film liquids at the surface) preferably be located to the NE or SE (best either) of urban/industrial centres that are to the west of 780 E meridian, and to the NW or SW (best either) of urban/ industrial centres that are to the east of 780E meridian. Presently, storm & flood water (which is wet & fertile silt-laden) is trained back to the saline sea via the shortest and swiftest path). Instead, flood water storage is strongly recommended – the longest circuitous path. A paradigm shift in mindset (towards this all-encompassing problem) and in engineering priority practices is needed. If we juxtapose our Fig.-1 with Fig.-3. we then note that it mimics an all-India scenario and is helpful in understanding the mechanics that is atypical as well as region-specific.

Natural Indicator

Human beings i.e., antrhropomorphs are homeotherms (can control body temperatures) and are also categorized as warm-blooded creatures. Snails; fishes; snakes; lizards, fleas; flies and birds are Poikilotherms (cannot control body temperature) and are also categorized as cold-blooded creatures. HW effect on homeotherms is preceded by noticeable effects on poikilotherms such as the absence of fleas, flies, and dying birds, while the non-climber reptiles often come on-ground (abandon Burroughs) or trying to climb trees, total absence of butterflies, juvenile-sized leafs falling off from trees (off-season patjhar); budding failure; widespread viral attacks on domesticated animals and pets, many similar signs – a series, pre-human fatality.

Sun Stroke Aspect

It is a clinical condition, albeit, the clinicians (not fundamental scientists) have vague explanations. Clinicians variously describe often them with classical Greek & Latin literary phones (assume them to be scientific terms). The clinical terms do not describe the mechanics or the kinetics. Only narrate the observed. SS is marked by high pyrexia, a manifestation of a varied series of individual-specific clinical symptoms leading normally to morbidity and consequent fatality all along associated with hypovolemia (physiological fluid depletion). In general, it is attributed to exposure of the human body to extreme heat waves for prolonged periods. SS is an infliction by the earth science processes onto the biological systems. In the previous centuries, SS was related to sunlight i.e., lumen (not heat) and to the eyes and nape [8]. This is pseudo comfort, permits the body extended exposure which portends ill. It is said that SS can happen to all. This is a fallacy. SS transpires out of evapotranspiration management failure at the individual level during freak or seasonal HW episodes. In other words, SS need not affect the flora or the fauna before striking anthropomorphic (can be reversed). SS can strike an individual who is not accustomed to summer heat and or an individual who has an impaired gut; damaged brain; is underfed; wrong diet; and the geriatric in general. As a rule, annually, when soil moisture gets to be very low, the other biologicals (flora & fauna) start loosing moisture (via osmosis). This is meteorologically termed as ‘HW’ and medico-clinically termed as ‘SS’, whereas it is directly related to soil moisture loss. SS kills, for it depletes physiological fluid balance hypovolemia (tissue perfusion failure)→neuro-muscular morbidity → shock → seizure → demise. Hypovolemia is also a major cause of myocardial infarction (heart attack), prior to that cerebral blackouts and necrosis occur (heart is spared). HW conditions up-regulate each and every pathology thereby heightening & hastening fatal conditions. The real cause of demise may be some other underlying cause and not HW or SS.

Six Symptoms of Sun Stroke

As the (human/animal) body loses fluid, at first the gut starts loosing fluid with constriction of the lumen’s cross-section. Food starts drying up, the gut goes into override with heightened peristalsis, it registers as stomach cramp (1st symptom), and lumen villis are severely adversely affected causing failure of food/drug uptake mechanism (salt, ion & minerals in particular from the gut) which has long term debilitating effect (reverses very slow). It is followed by the genesis of a gradient from the lymph towards the vasculatures (a surreal situation), for the lymph nodes are ‘one-way lock gates’ (lymphatic drainage stops). They shut down in an effort to restrict lymph loss. The heart initially goes into an override eventually lapsing into low stroke volume and ectopic syndrome. Deep-seated numb pain embalms the body. Thereafter, the exposed muscles start contributing salt, ions and fluid. Whole body musculature starts acutely aching known as myalgia (2nd symptom). The ion mechanism pathways in the body get askew, with headache (3rd symptom), when not attended to effectively, pallor (fixed eyeballs) and neck slumping occur as in cerebral malariasis/kala-azar, etc.(one of the terminal symptoms). Thereafter, follows failure of signal transduction pathways and collapse of hemodynamics with concurrent renal shutdown. To overcome, the brain first marginally raises the body perspiration which soon fails (because of progressing hypovolemia), in response to ‘sweat failure’, it whips the heart (by expressing aldarin) into an override, sans any hypertension of the systole or the diastole eventually lapsing into acute hypotension (non-traceable vein). At this juncture having Beetle nut in your mouth spells irreversible doom (in a non-stroke state it is good). The brain does not, it continues to sense danger to itself, therefore, it then extensively relaxes the autonomic muscles initially of the lower limbs resulting first in ‘unsteady steps’ (4th symptom) followed by ‘sleepy feeling’ / blackout (5th symptom). With the fall, public attention is drawn towards the stricken and casualty is reported. Process fatality (cascade) has long set in by then (almost too late). Immediately post the 4th-5th symptoms, something very extraordinary ‘reaction’ manifests, the brain shuts down the temp regulator sub-organ (hypothalamus), which makes the human physiology a ‘homeotherm’ (warm-blooded creature seems to change phase to that of a cold-blooded creature-poikilotherm). It results insoaring of peripheral temperature clinically articulated as ‘pyrexia’ (6thsymptom). All this happens in a cascade mechanism as part of the ‘homeothermic effect’ (physiological systems that can regulate their own body temperature). SS is termed a ‘stroke’, for it is much like ‘anaphylactic shock’, yet there is often no seizure nor any hyponatraemia. Even, there is a drawback of fluid from the lymphatic network (spell grave prognosis). Thus, SS is a state of failure of the innate homeothermic mechanism and the associated tissue perfusion force. It also portends a state of sub-normal hemodynamics (low BP and low cardiac output). During such stage oral infusion of potable water and or intravenous infusion of plasma expanders (saline) and or ice pack application is bound to fail and fatality ensues. There is no therapy as yet. One is wanted. Plasma expanders and exogenous cooling is alike beating around the bush. Therefore, in status SS, the aphorism ‘treated extensively, the patient died’, holds teasingly good. The treating clinician does not understand all this, he and his lot are cues less, stop running from pillar to post, remind themselves about God, and give up (become a believer !). Hope is the tether. Metaphysics replaces bio-physics. It is nursing that delivers the most. An old experienced nurse (often) makes the difference. One has to appreciate, that clinicians are mere technicians of the biological bodies. Even an eminent clinic surgeon of great standing is a mere firefighter par excellence and not a design engineer. Researchers have yet to arm them. This transaction is a mini step in such a direction.


Sunshade and standard/moderate gut loading (solid + fluid + ions + glucose) is the best anti-dote (prophylaxis\preventive). In clinics and hospitals, ice packs are used. We are of the considered view that the use of ice packs further complicates the faltering hemodynamics. In place of the ice pack, cool (10-200C) 2%KCL+5% NaCl +5% CaOH mixed water should be used as sprung dissolved into cold potable mineralized water. O3 (ozone) therapy may also prove beneficial. Gut to periphery pathway route ~ is the sole systemic working route of ion injection available ~ and needs to be utilized as SOS. Therefore, 2%KCL+5% NaCl +2% CaOH should be orally slow-fed as the sole internal medicine. Preferably cow milk diluted or goat milk (1:4 v/v H2O & milk) be administered orally, for rapid induced mechanical quenching. 2%KCL +CaOH2 2% may also repeatedly be scrubbed gently on the gums as well for rapid sub-lingual uptake (shortest route to heart & brain). Phosphate intra-muscular injectibles (or sub-lingual) should also be considered. All these constitute Medical Meteorology [9-12].

Meteorological History

The term Sanatan means ‘hydespas’ (perennial) and the term Hindu (Lama-Mongol phone) means non-migrating\river valley\settled\unflinching. When we look up the History of India, we note that it has been enjoying a settlement type of well-cultured life since very early times (when barbarians roamed most of Europe & the Americas). From every conservative perspective, it is clear that the Indian sub-continent has the oldest living culture (has been in a continuum since 5,000 years before the present). All other peer civilizations and cultures seem to have vanished leaving back deserts. Anthropologically, human migration has happened towards the Indian sub-continent. Counter-immigration tantamounting to full abdication has never been. The IMD data says that there has virtually been NO change in annual rainfall or temperature pattern over the Indian peninsula (only annual variability including 2008). In Fig.5. we have produced a graph pertaining to RF during the last 100 years [13]. Meanwhile, India has gone on to house 1.2 Billion stomachs and an enviable scientific heritage. This means native Indians may have designed devices, mechanisms and methodologies to avert/overcome/down-regulate the effect of aridification mechanics, heat waves and sunstroke. In this segment, we consider how the native has been coping with the heat wave and how we have been inspired i.e. few tangible (native/national) and intangible heritage aspects are discussed. Monsoon is the dominant met phenomenon of the Indian subcontinent. And, it is marked by gross variability. HW is one of the signature products of such variability. The ancient mind had abdicated its domain even in the face of climate change (e.g., Nile; Euphrates, Indus, etc.). Monsoon is the Emperor of variability. It seems that it fails climate change (also). Thus, the same period mind native to monsoon climate had devised intelligent means and methods to overcome weather variability. Climate change in the domain of India thus stands discounted (Geological scale).

Native Heritage Aspects

Soil & Moisture Matters

Thus India (along with China) has ‘permanent agriculture’ & topsoil conservation [14]. Indian farmers practice mono-crops. They leave the stubble behind. The stubble provides a micro-level shed, traps moisture at night and translocates it back to the soil and finally thwarts cake formation and soil denudation. Finally, they allow the stubble to convert to fertile soil cum binder. It is a nocturnal-diurnal action. Thus she has a rich heritage in topsoil conservation and SM retention. She also has a unique practice of holding sweet water at the surface she has a rich heritage in related engineering [15] as thin film water bodies [7].

Home Stead Design

Coastal India is cyclone-prone [16,17] and also land Tornados [18]. She therefore also has a heritage in severe weather-resistant homestead design & engineering [19]. However, (rural India’s) heat wave-resistant native-ethnic design aspects have not been presented. Central and western Odisha (representative candidate of all India loo regions, a province of India, eastern shore board) we have noted that traditional dwellings have something called ‘nia verandah’ (fire vestibule). Fig. 6 schematically explains the same. We may note that the passages of the nia verandah have bends at right angles. The desiccated, dry, hot breeze/wind fails to barge onto the doorway due to principles of cancellation that come into play in tune with Newton’s 3rd law of motion. The passage width varies, which causes constriction and expansion of the air mass before it reaches the (closed) door. Because of such compression, a boundary layer of compressed air develops around the hutment. Village hutment door shutters are normally very ordinary, hence are not effective in shutting out the direct incident ‘loo’ (hot summer blast). Therefore, the nia verandah has a significant role. In c.18th A.D., constriction followed by expansion of manually blown air was used to resort to cool VIP room interiors and even surgery rooms. In the process, barocline compression inflicts heat into the system. In design nia verandha expansion inflicts cooling. This apart, the Odisa village hutments (roofs) have attoo (inner ceiling). Attoo(s) are either horizontal or slanting. They are made of timber planks or a combination of bamboo and clay, wood and tile interlay, sand & lime plaster, etc. The walls of the hutments are thick ranging between 12-24 inches wide. Fig.7 schematically explains the concept of cooling in a rural conical thatched hutment (well to person). No.1 & 2 marks the surface level air and dry-decorated/humid air. We know near the walls (solid state boundary/vector) a compressed boundary layer of air always exits. The outside breeze gets mildly compressed and climbs (cools also), is allowed into the room at wall height level through a constricted opening No.3, where it gains velocity and cools further. The impressed air expands within the room and cools further. As it gains moisture and warmth from the anthropogenic activity inside, mass gain occurs and it experiences gravity wave type phenomena = cool feeling. The non-moisturized dry air rises along the inclined inner syncline of the roof from all sides. Structures that have tattoo may also have openings for access to the upper ceiling No.4. This further helps in air mass separation. At the apex, a region of higher RH and heat is built up No.6. On the outer, high contrast exists with a surface area of more than 1:1 (aatoo: outer). Top heating takes place here and enstrophy-type phenomena are located in and around the apex (roof-divider), No.7. This causes an ever-present feel-good factor inside the hutment. In western Orissa, the apex region of the tiled and the Khapara ghara, normally have small rooms as part of dual dual-storied plan. The mono or the multi-storey is roofed with khaparas (glyptic tiles). They are laid out in rows in an interlocking manner, often 2 or 4 layers thick. The layers have mini windows (due use of khaparas of variable cross-section) between the upper & the lower tile spaces, thus heat escape (Fig\drawing not produced). Very versatile, unique and effective. The walls are thick and made of admixture material (having varying thermal character). These act as roof atop attoo cum two-way ventilator. It is entirely local industry & labour based also.

Dress Heritage

In the semi-arid and bone-dry deserts, the Banaras (forest wanderers), the Bedouins (desert wanderers) and the natives use layers of long staple make cotton thin textile, loosely slung over the head, neck and whole body. The numerous folds and the interlayer gaps act as conduction failure zones. The conduction route via the cotton fabric is enlarged many times in terms of length dimension while the depth dimension is marked by a discontinuity (inter-folds). Moisture from the body is also trapped in these layers which result is an ever-present macro area, mini convective current(s), in a reducing manner towards the outer. Convection cools. The inter-layer gaps keep on altering (squeeze & expanse) with even slight movements of the body. As a result, the evolution of uniformity of pressure, moisture and thermodynamic conjugation constantly keeps on failing. Between the long and the short, the long-staple cotton allows close and tight-knit of the fabric (traps outgoing body moisture), while the loose drape attire assists micro area breeze, which assists cooling. Two contrasting environment domains are maintained in close proximity. The white monochrome textile (al-khala?) head drapery of the desert regions also efficiently reflects cum cancels the incident light, assisting better vision despite the glowing Sun. The headband acts as a circular lock, upto which point internal RH is higher [20].

Food Heritage

Rice, Chuda, Mudhi do not pass hypovolemic stress test. Dal (lintel) fares better. The tropical (water-inundated crops) staple food products have relatively low moisture retention properties. They lose moisture swiftly and self-semi-bake into hard, filamentous, crystalline cakes, that do not reform (well or to original) on regain of moisture/fluid balance. Gluttonous food like wheat, dates (khajur), major and minor millets (jowar, bazra, maize, rasi….) dry fruits (like almonds, and apricots) resist rapid fluid loss, cake formation and crystallisation within the gut. Post drying they (comparatively) re-form very well on re-gain of moisture/fluid. When wheat is intermixed with minor millets or lintel, the exposed surface takes a (dense) glossy coat comprising organic polymers. Evapotranspiration slows down further and cake formation mechanics is downregulated if not thwarted. No crystalline cake is formed in the case of mixed lintel gruel (tadkaa, khichdi). Hence, a Banzara or a Bedouin is not as thirsty nor needs to carry a large ration of potable water. A coastal native even when with a belly full of pakhala (watered rice), on initial exposure toloo conditions experiences a feeling of insatiable thirst. This is the initial signature of a rudimentary ‘hypovolemia’. In spite of this, Sun-stroke is the single largest killer in semi-arid and in bone dry deserts worldwide. Onion, cucumber and all species of watermelon also help to retain fluid and maintain the gut lumen. We raise the question apart from semi-arid region cultivated gluttonous staple food and wheat, what else helps the homeotherm in systemic self assistance to avert or down-regulate body fluid loss and in body temperature control? We note it is the intake of curd (lactobacillus) and citrus fruit (Vit. C with fibre) and ascorbates. Excessive intake of NaCl leads to the opening up of the renal irrigation channel and the consequent onset of an insatiable thirst cycle. Reducing sugars (as in dates & canes) is better. Intake of multi-vitamins (admixed high Dalton proteins) is potentially risky and toxic during heat wave episodes. Nicotine is better – for it moistens thebroncheols and the alveoiles via a direct and reflux mechanism. Caffeine is not, for it dilates the vasculature, and assists heightened hypotension askew hemodynamics further. Tea assists vascular constriction may be of limited help in therapy. Interestingly, Cow, Camel, Goat and last of allBuffalo milk positions as a potent anti-Sun stroke (prophylactic cum therapeutic) food agent. This is because of the biogenic elemental Calcium, which is an efficient, most important and largest biochemical component of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuromuscular signal transducer. Very recently, researchers have shown that civilization may have benefited from extreme natural events such as meteorite strike [21].


The administration can do precious enough by monitoring soil moisture loss over extensive regions (earliest signature). India has a good data bank in agro-met domains. The data should be opened upto the public. The nation can then pre-calculate with near precision about the likely period, and intensity of any impending ‘Heatwave’ conditions in relation to time and place, and its impact on flora and fauna. HW & humidity in particular have been related to medical health hazards [22]. Youth (hormonal anabolic stage) endure HW well. They should be encouraged to go into the mid-day sun and come back with solutions in sciences. For humanity to march, medicines are a must. For treating sun stroke patients there is not even a single specific medicine nor even a protocol as pan global\national\regional standard operating procedure (SOP). This communication suggests a few for the first time and also indicates a backbone for any SOP. Fall in soil moisture (ecological phenomena) causes heat waves (meteorological phenomena). Jointly, because of sunstroke (physiological phenomenon). Insurmountable. Pan globally the geographical swath is enlarging even extending into Rhine land to Danube Europe (well beyond), which was otherwise considered as ‘not prone to heatwave’. Technology is assisting longer life cycles, and extended hours of anthropogenic activity mostly involving greater amounts of energy conservation. And, most of such energy is derived from isotopes ~ which inflict long-scope alterations at the environment surface & inter-faces (soil & atmosphere). Mother nature annually auto-reverses heat waves & soil moisture. Isotope based energy production and its conservations require a longer scope for recovery – is the suggestive natural indication (by such time the next annual dry season cycle heralds). Sunstroke has thus far remained non-reversible, associated with hemodynamics failure cum gut collapse (original 1st-time findings) apart from hypothalamus impotence (thermal shock- pseudo anaphylaxis). It heralds fatality. Internal infusion of salts and electrolytes via the oral route is advocated. Glutonic food that does not crystallize on fluid loss and regains slimy form on contact with liquids (handmade, pan-baked Indian roti). Bristling brine loaded with salts (mono & divalent cations), ascorbates, alkaloids and flavinoids (Toranee as in Odisa) are indicated as the anti-dote cum preventives. Even rice ferments (fluids called Handia) in earthen utensils as made by various tribes of India indicate excellent physiological stress-bearing ability (evapotranspiration body fluid loss) and venal-lymphatic stenosis (personal data). Lymphatic pathway failure (due draw back of lymph fluid) is also clearly indicated in SS (2017 summer data). The drawback of lymph fluid causes muscle failure (especially the involuntary) and griping intestinal collapse conditions due to crystalising food in the lumen (An {unnatural} interconnect is established which cannot be restored clinically). Therefore, poly-layered, loose-fitting cotton fabric body wear & and head gear avert body fluid loss and thermal shocks. In its absence, Bristling brine (& or handia) substitutes effectively. Native homestead designs as to how they cool interiors and heat wave failing vestibules (physics of the mechanics) are discussed with drawings. Heatwaves & sun strokes are here to stay. There is a need to fight back. The WHO may need to have a protocol in place supported by the UN.


Heatwaves & Sunstroke are natural phenomena. Pan globally, the geographical swath is alleged to be on the rise due to global warming & climate change. Demographic demand for the geo-space is on the rise, exponentially so also are HW and SS-related casualties (which are often in group numbers). HW is dependent on geographical location, geospatial architecture, latitudinal extent, geomorphology, orography and annual-seasonal meteorological variations, etc. It is an ecological\environmental crisis. SS is a medical emergency. They are inter-connected. The Indian civilization has been on a continuum since at least 5,000 years before the present. And whereas, all other ancient civilization rose and have withered away (mostly to desertification mechanics). Rural India has a plethora of native practices vis-à-vis sunstroke and food-based prophylaxis. She also has an enviable range vis-à-vis heat wave-resistant homestead design and dress code. The mechanics of meteorological processes & environmental response in the genesis of heat waves have been discussed in an illuminating manner for the first time. The pathophysiology of sunstroke and the food and drug-based (clinical & home-based) anti-dotes have been presented succinctly. All these scientifically can be evaluated. A multi-lateral initiative would be more beneficial. Heritage practices are always local employment friendly. Very little is known even within India. India’s administration is also quite ill-informed about her native heritage. This long period, of multi-disciplinary communication is groundbreaking and opens new vistas of inquest for socio-cultural benefits & for the comfort lifestyle industry. It is nascent & is not exhaustive.

Title Image Courtesy:

Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed by the author do not necessarily reflect the views of the Government of India and Defence Research and Studies


This work is dedicated to the rural communities in memory of author No. 2. Thanks to the engineers and architects of Rhythm Architects for helping with the sketches (Dr. P.C. Naik introduced the engineers for such a long period of work assistance).

In Memoriam

These presents are in the memory of Prof. Bijoy Kishore Misra (Co-Author ), who left us for his Heavenly abode during the preparation of this paper. We made an oral presentation at the NATIONAL SEMINAR on Disaster Management: Towards Ecological & Human Security, Jamshedji Tata Centre for Disaster Management, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Deonar, Mumbai, India. April 24-25, 2009. This work is dedicated to the rural communities in his memory.


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By Dr Deepak Bhattacharya

Dr Deepak Bhattacharya, PhD with doctoral and postdoctoral inventions\ discoveries LAL invention for India. Worked with Red Cross. Guided\Headed many researches. NASA awarded in 2009. Already published 60 + multi-discipline groundbreaking papers. Poly-nation team leader. Free Lance. Intuitive. Vedic Vigyan specialist. Involved in drug discovery and nursing.